PURPOSE:: In this study, the electrical discharge machining (EDM) was formed on the surface of the Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) specimen. MATERIALS:: The properties of adhesion and proliferation of MG-63 cells were evaluated the interactions between the EDM-treated layer and cells. RESULTS:: The incorporation of oxygen roughened the EDM-treated specimen surface on a microscale, where the nanoscale pores were superimposed. The EDM-treated layer, which can generate the thick anatase TiO2 on the Ti64 surface, afforded a cytocompatible environment. In cell culture, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin can be dramatically enhanced on the EDM-treated surfaces when compared with the untreated surface. In addition, the increase in peak currents to the EDM functionalization led to enhancement of multiple osteoblast functions. CONCLUSIONS:: This study reveals that the chemistry and crystallinity of the EDM-treated layer played important roles in affecting osteoblastic responses to the specimens, which provided insight into the development of new biomedical implant surfaces.
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