Synthesis of interferon (IFN) in response to Sendai virus and the development of the resulting antiviral state were studied in human (BG-9) and murine (L-929) fibroblast cell cultures in the presence of the calmodulin antagonists, trifluoperazine (TFP) and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7). Compared to control cultures, 16-fold and 8-fold more IFN was formed in human and murine cells, respectively, when 10 μM TFP was present in the medium for 24 h prior to IFN induction with Sendai virus. W-7 did not affect IFN production in human cells, but enhanced it in L-929 cells by 4- to 8-fold. TFP inhibited the antiviral state induced by homologous IFN in the two cell systems, and at 20 μM, there was a 3,000-fold increase in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) yield. It also reduced the maintenance of the antiviral state in human cells. In contrast, W-7 had no effect on the development of the antiviral state in either of the two cell systems. Thus, calcium-calmodulin dependent cellular processes are involved in both induction of IFN and its action. The several patterns response to TFP and W-7 may reflect different ligand-binding sites on calmodulin.
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