Beneficial effects of probiotics in acute infectious diarrhoea in children are mainly seen in watery diarrhoea and viral gastroenteritis. Lactobacillus rhamnosus, one the most extensively studied probiotic strains, is effective in shortening courses of acute diarrhoea in children. However, the dose-dependent effect of Lactobacillus upon quantification of faecal rotavirus shedding in humans remains little known. Thus, an open-label randomized trial in 23 children with acute rotaviral gastroenteritis was undertaken by randomly allocating patients to receive one of the three regimens for 3 days: daily. Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 (Lcr35) with 0 CFU/day to six patients in the control group, 2 × 10. 8 CFU/day to nine patients in the low-dose group, and 6 × 10. 8 CFU/day to eight patients in the high-dose group. Faecal samples were collected before and after the 3-day regimen for measurements of rotavirus concentrations by ELISA. There was no statistically significant change in faecal rotavirus concentrations in either the control group (119.2 × 10. 5 particles/ml vs. 23.7 × 10. 5 particles/ml p = 0.075) or the low-dose group (36.1 × 10. 5 particles/ml vs. 73.5 × 10. 5 particles/ml p = 0.859). However, the high-dose group had a significant reduction of faecal rotavirus concentration (64.2 × 10. 5 particles/ml vs. 9.0 × 10. 5 particles/ml p = 0.012). Without any exception, the faecal rotavirus concentrations of all eight patients in the high-dose Lcr35 group declined by 86% after 3 days when compared with those before Lcr35 administration. In conclusion, this is the first report to provide quantitative evidence of the dose-dependent effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a minimal effective dose of 6 × 10. 8 CFU for 3 days, upon the faecal rotavirus shedding in paediatric patients.
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