Two lignans, phyllamycin B and retrojusticidin B isolated from Phyllanthus myrtifolius Moon have been demonstrated to have a strong inhibitory effect on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase activity (HIV-1 RT), but much less inhibitory effect on human DNA polymerase-α (HDNAP-α) activity. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations of phyllamycin B and retrojusticidin B were determined to be 3.5 and 5.5 μM for HIV-1 RT, and 289 and 989 μM for HDNAP-α, respectively. The mode of inhibition was found to be non-competitive inhibition with respect to template-primer and triphosphate substrate. Several tannins such as caffeoylquinates (CQs) isolated from Lonicera japonica Thunb, galloylquinates (GQs) and galloylshikimates (GSs) purified from Castanopsis hystrix were shown to have a much less selective inhibitory effect on HIV-1 RT.
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