This study investigated the effect of dietary fish oil on systemic inflammation and hepatic injury in mice with polymicrobial sepsis. Male ICR mice were assigned to a control group (C, n=30) and a fish oil group (FO, n=30). Mice in the C group were fed a semi-purified diet with 10% soybean oil, and those in the FO group were fed a fish oil diet (2.5% fish oil+7.5% soybean oil; w/w). Three weeks later, sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and mice were sacrificed at 0, 6 and 24 h after CLP, respectively. Results showed that compared with C group, the FO group had lower plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and nitrite at 6 and 24 h after CLP. Also, peritoneal lavage fluid concentrations of TNF-α and prostaglandin (PG) E2 were significantly lower at 24 h in the FO than in the C group. The FO group had lower myeloperoxidase activities at 6 h after CLP in various organs. Plasma aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities revealed significantly decreased in the FO group. The DNA-binding activity of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and mRNA expression of I kappaB alpha (IκBα) were up-regulated while nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 DNA-binding activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression and the concentration of nitrotyrosine were significantly decreased in the FO group in liver after CLP. These results indicate that dietary fish oil administration may attenuate systemic inflammation and up-regulate hepatic PPARγ DNA-binding activity, which may consequently have ameliorated liver injury in these septic mice.
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