This study developed an in vitro diaphragm motion reproduction system (IVDMRS) based on noninvasive and real-time ultrasound imaging to track the internal displacement of the human diaphragm and diaphragm phantoms with a respiration simulation system (RSS). An ultrasound image tracking algorithm (UITA) was used to retrieve the displacement data of the tracking target and reproduce the diaphragm motion in real time using a red laser to irradiate the diaphragm phantom in vitro. This study also recorded the respiration patterns in 10 volunteers. Both simulated and the respiration patterns in 10 human volunteers signals were input to the RSS for conducting experiments involving the reproduction of diaphragm motion in vitro using the IVDMRS. The reproduction accuracy of the IVDMRS was calculated and analyzed. The results indicate that the respiration frequency substantially affects the correlation between ultrasound and kV images, as well as the reproduction accuracy of the IVDMRS due to the system delay time (0.35 s) of ultrasound imaging and signal transmission. The utilization of a phase lead compensator (PLC) reduced the error caused by this delay, thereby improving the reproduction accuracy of the IVDMRS by 14.09–46.98%. Applying the IVDMRS in clinical treatments will allow medical staff to monitor the target displacements in real time by observing the movement of the laser beam. If the target displacement moves outside the planning target volume (PTV), the treatment can be immediately stopped to ensure that healthy tissues do not receive high doses of radiation.
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