Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome-chips are employed to determine the EBV infection rate and to reveal the gene expression patterns of EBV in tumor biopsies. These chips are produced with 71 consecutive PCR-amplified EBV DNA fragments of 1-3 kbp covering the entire EBV genome. The specificity of the EBV-chips is determined by hybridizing the DNA on the chips with biotin-labeled cDNA probes reverse transcribed from the mRNA of P3HR1 cells, which were B-cell infected latently by EBV. Hybridization results revealed only the expression of EBNA1, EBNA2, EBER1 and EBER2 in these cells. On the other hand, EBV lytic genes are expressed after the cells are treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13- acetate and sodium butyrate to induce the EBV lytic cycle. Fourty-four tumor biopsies from different organs are assayed with these chips, which showed many defined and interesting EBV gene expression patterns. This study demonstrates that the EBV-chip is useful for screening infection with EBV in tumors, which may lead to insights into tumorigenesis associated with this virus.
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