Air pollution has been linked to respiratory diseases, and urban air pollution can be attributed to a number of emission sources. The emitted particles and gases are the primary components of air pollution that enter the lungs during respiration. Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) can deposit deep into the respiratory tract via inhalation and has been proposed as a causative agent for adverse respiratory health. In addition, the lung contains a diverse microbial community (microbiome) that maintains normal homeostasis and is significantly altered in a variety of pulmonary disorders. Air pollution, specifically PM2.5, has previously been shown to significantly alter the composition of the lower airway microbiome, which has been linked to decreased lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Surprisingly, the intestinal microbiome has also been implicated in the modulation of pulmonary inflammatory diseases. Therefore, dysbiosis of the lung and intestinal microbiomes pose significant negative effects on human health. This dataset describes the microbial community profiles of the lungs and intestines of ageing rats exposed to ambient unconcentrated traffic-related air pollution for three months. The whole-body exposure system was equipped with and without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration (gaseous vs. PM2.5 pollution). The data can provide valuable information on lung and intestinal microbiome changes, including that which was only found after traffic-related air pollution exposure.