Cancer immunotherapies are treatments that use drugs or cells to activate patients’ own immune systems against cancer cells. Among them, cancer vaccines have recently been rapidly developed. Based on tumor-specific antigens referred to as neoantigens, these vaccines can be in various forms such as messenger (m)RNA and synthetic peptides to activate cytotoxic T cells and act with or without dendritic cells. Growing evidence suggests that neoantigen-based cancer vaccines possess a very promising future, yet the processes of immune recognition and activation to relay identification of a neoantigen through the histocompatibility complex (MHC) and T-cell receptor (TCR) remain unclear. Here, we describe features of neoantigens and the biological process of validating neoantigens, along with a discussion of recent progress in the scientific development and clinical applications of neoantigen-based cancer vaccines.
ASJC Scopus subject areas