Head trauma is one of the most challenging fields of traumatology and demands immediate attention and intervention by first-line clinicians. Symptoms can vary from victim to victim and according to the victim's age, leading to difficulties in making timely and accurate decisions at the point of care. In children, falls, accidents while playing, sports injuries, and abuse are the major causes of head trauma. Traffic accidents are the main cause of disability and death in adolescents and adults. Injury sites include facial bones, muscles, ligaments, vessels, joints, nerves, and focal or whole-brain injuries. Of particular importance are cranial and intracranial injuries. A closed injury occurs when the head suddenly and violently hits an object but the object does not break through the skull. A penetrating injury occurs when an object pierces the skull and affects the brain tissue. Early diagnosis and proper management are crucial to treat patients with potentially life-threatening head and neck trauma. In this review, we discuss the different cases of traumatic brain injury and summarize the current therapies and neuroprotective strategies as well as the related outcomes for children with traumatic brain injury.
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