To evaluate the cell responses of titanium oxide layer with the nanoporous micro-structure, an electrochemical anodization approach was proposed to create a nanoporous structure that superimposed onto the moderately rough sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) Ti surface (denoted as SLAffinity-Ti). The osteoblast-like cells were cultured on SLAffinity-Ti and un-treated surfaces. Cell adhesion, viability, mRNA expressions as well as the productions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OC) were evaluated at predetermined intervals. The present results showed that cells had a high viability, attachment, and improved cell proliferation at day 7 and 14 when cultured on SLAffinity-Ti surface. The mRNA expressions of ALP and OC were upregulated while the type I collagen was not influenced. Additionally, the cells cultured on the SLAffinity-Ti surface produced a higher level of ALP and OC relative to cells on untreated surfaces. These findings confirmed that surface topography (nanoporous roughness) and TiO2 layers influenced the cell responses and the study revealed that cells grown on SLAffinity-Ti may improve osseointegration for Ti implants.
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