Glioblastoma, formerly known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is refractory to existing adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We successfully synthesized a complex, Au–OMV, with two specific nanoparticles: gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs) from E. coli. Au–OMV, when combined with radiotherapy, produced radiosensitizing and immuno-modulatory effects that successfully suppressed tumor growth in both subcutaneous G261 tumor-bearing and in situ (brain) tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice. Longer survival was also noted with in situ tumor-bearing mice treated with Au–OMV and radiotherapy. The mechanisms for the successful treatment were evaluated. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) greatly increased in response to Au–OMV in combination with radiotherapy in G261 glioma cells. Furthermore, with a co-culture of G261 glioma cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages, we found that GL261 cell viability was related to chemotaxis of macrophages and TNF-α production.
ASJC Scopus subject areas