Introduction: Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for lung cancer. MSCs in the TME promoting tumor angiogenesis, growth, and metastasis. SIBLING proteins enable cancer cells to extend, invade and metastasize. Objectives: Cigarette smoke promotes the progression and metastasis of lung cancer, although how this occurs is poorly understood. We evaluated the impact of whether cigarette smoking motivates SIBLING protein expression and is involved in MSC-mediated lung tumor metastasis. Methods: We investigated the expression of OPN in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases and confirmed the results by immunohistochemistry (IHC), qPCR and Western blotting (WB) of lung cancer cells and tissues. The effect of OPN on the recruitment and adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to lung cancer cells and lung cancers metastasis was investigated by Transwell, adhesion assays. A series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to demonstrate the mechanisms by which OPN modulates recruitment and adhesion of MSCs to lung cancer cells and lung cancer metastasis. Results: Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P) increased levels of OPN expression and facilitated the recruitment and adhesion of MSCs to lung cancer cells via JAK2/STAT3 signaling. We also observed that OPN promotes tumor-associated MSC (TA-MSC) formation through the OPN receptor (integrins αvβ1, αvβ3, αvβ5 or CD44), inducing lung cancer cell migration and invasion. In an orthotopic mouse model of lung cancer, increases in OPN expression promoted by cigarette smoke upregulated MSC recruitment and facilitated lung cancer metastasis. Knockdown of OPN expression inhibited cigarette smoke-induced lung cancer metastasis in vivo. Conclusion: Cigarette smoke increases OPN expression through the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway to attract MSC cell recruitment and promote lung cancer metastasis. Our findings offer important insights into how lung cancer metastasis develops in smokers.
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