Very Early Recurrence of AF. Introduction: Early restoration of sinus rhythm following ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) facilitates reverse atrial remodeling and improves the long-term outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors and outcome in patients with very early AF recurrences (<2 days). Methods and Results: Ablation was performed in 339 consecutive AF patients (paroxysmal AF = 262). Biatrial voltage was mapped during sinus rhythm. If recurrent AF occurred within 2 days following the ablation, electrical cardioversion was performed to restore sinus rhythm. Very early recurrences of AF occurred in 39 (15%) patients with paroxysmal AF and 26 (34%) with nonparoxysmal AF. Patients with very early recurrence had a higher incidence of nonparoxysmal AF (40% vs 18.6%, P<0.001), requirement of electrical cardioversion during procedure, larger left atrial (LA) diameter (43 ± 7 vs 39 ± 6 mm, P<0.001), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (54 ± 10% vs 59 ± 7, P<0.001), longer procedural time, and lower LA voltage (1.5 ± 0.7 vs 1.9 ± 0.8 mV, P<0.001). A multivariate analysis revealed that the independent predictors of a very early recurrence were a longer procedural time and lower LA voltage. During a follow-up of 13 ± 5 months, a very early recurrence did not predict the long-term outcome of a single procedure recurrence in the patients with paroxysmal AF, but was associated with a late recurrence in the nonparoxysmal AF patients. Conclusion: Very early recurrence occurred in patients with paroxysmal AF is not associated with long-term recurrence. Nonparoxysmal AF is an independent predictor of late recurrence of AF in patients with very early recurrence.
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