Purpose: Loneliness affect older people’s health and well-being. This study explored the effects of changes in health and social relationships on loneliness in older adults. Methods: Data were from the 2011 and 2015 surveys of the Taiwan Longitudinal Survey on Aging. Individuals who were aged ≥55 years at the baseline (2011) and who completed both waves of the survey were included in the analysis (n = 2,512). In the 2015 wave, loneliness was predicted on the basis of the factors identified in the 2011 wave and the changes in health and social relationship between the two waves. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Results: Decreased social group participation, decreased receiving instrumental social support, increased negative support, decreased feeling of usefulness to others, decreased informational support, decreased financial life satisfaction, increased stress, and increased depressive symptoms were related to a higher level of loneliness, whereas increased social support and social participation as well as decreased stress and depressive symptoms were related to a lower level of loneliness. Changes in depressive symptoms, a reduction in financial satisfaction, and an increase in stress were related to both the social and emotional dimensions of loneliness. Decreased social connection, social support, and social participation were related to social loneliness, whereas an increase in physical disability was related to emotional loneliness. Conclusion: Older people’s changes in social support, social participation, financial satisfaction, stress, and depressive symptoms may affect their loneliness afterward. Social networks and resources should be developed in the community for older adults.
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