Purpose: To identify the long-term maxillomandibular changes after surgical correction of mandibular prognathism using bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). Patients and Methods: Twenty patients who underwent BSSO to setback the mandible and had cephalometric radiographs taken preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 weeks, 1 year, and long-term follow-up (mean, 28 months). The cephalograms were traced and measured to determine the operative and postoperative changes. Correlation analyses were performed to see the relationship between the magnitude of setback and the amount of long-term postsurgical change at B point and pogonion. Results: The mean surgical setback was 8.2 mm at B point and 8.8 mm at pogonion. The mean long-term horizontal relapse was 2.3 mm (28.0%) at B point and 3.0 mm (34.1%) at pogonion. Out of 20 patients, 12 (60.0%) relapsed horizontally greater than 2 mm at B point and 13 (65.0%) at pogonion. The mean vertical surgical changes showed downward displacement of B point (2.3 mm) and pogonion (2.0 mm). The mean long-term vertical relapse was 1.6 mm (69.6%) at B point and 1.7 mm (85.0%) at pogonion. Conclusion: There was no correlation between the magnitude of setback and the amount of relapse at B point and pogonion. However, there was significant correlation between the magnitude of vertical, downward surgical displacement and the amount of vertical relapse at B point and pogonion. The majority of the maxillofacial changes occurred within 1 year postoperatively.
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