The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of nutritional supplement drinks (NSDs) and nutritional education (NE) on the nutritional status and physical performance of older nursing home residents who were at risk of malnutrition. This study was a clustered, randomized, parallel, multi-center clinical trial, with 107 participants more than 65 years old and at risk of malnutrition recruited from several nursing homes in this study. Participants were divided into two groups: an NE group (n = 50) and an NSD group (n = 57). The NE group was given NE by a dietitian, while the NSD group was provided with two packs of NSD except receiving NE (Mei Balance, Meiji Holdings, Tokyo, Japan) per day as a snack between meals and before bed. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, nutritional status, blood biochemical biomarkers, and physical performance were measured before and after 12-week interventions. After 12 weeks of NE combined with NSD intervention, body weight, body-mass index, the mini nutritional assessment-short form (MNA-SF) score, walking speed, and SF-36 questionnaire score were improved in older nursing home residents at risk of malnutrition.
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