Vitamin D is involved in the pathophysiology of anemia. This cross-sectional study was conducted using the Nationwide Nutrition and Health Survey in Pregnant Women in Taiwan database. We investigated associations among dietary patterns (DPs), vitamin D, and iron-related biomarkers in pregnant women. The principal component analysis revealed four DPs. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association of DPs with anemia-related biomarkers. Plant-based, carnivore, and dairy and nondairy alternatives DPs were positively associated with serum vitamin D levels. After adjusting covariates, the pregnant women consuming plant-based DPs at the mid-tertile (T2) were associated with reduced risks of low serum folate and vitamin D levels, and those consuming carnivore DPs at higher tertiles (T2 and/or T3) were correlated with an increased risk of low serum iron levels but decreased risks of low serum transferrin saturation, vitamin B12, and vitamin D levels. The pregnant women consuming dairy and nondairy alternatives DPs at the highest tertile (T3) were associated with reduced risks of low serum folate and vitamin B12 levels. However, the processed food DP was not correlated with anemia-related biomarkers. Thus, plant-based, carnivore, and dairy and nondairy alternatives DPs were associated with the risk of low-serum-anemia-related variables.
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