Low-temperature plasma-treated porcine grafts (PGPT) may be an effective means for treating demanding osseous defects and enhance our understanding of plasma-tissue engineering. We chemically characterized porcine grafts under low-temperature Argon plasma treatment (CAP) and evaluated their biocompatibility in-vitro. Our results showed that PGPT did not differ in roughness, dominant crystalline phases, absorption peaks corresponding to phosphate band peaks, or micro-meso pore size, compared to non-treated porcine grafts. The PGPT Ca/P ratio was 2.16; whereas the porcine control ratio was 2.04 (p < 0.05). PGPT's [C 1s], [P 2p] and [Ca 2p] values were 24.3%, 5.6% and 11.0%, respectively, indicating that PGPT was an apatite without another crystalline phase. Cell viability and alkaline phosphatase assays revealed enhanced proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation for the cells cultivated in the PGPT media after 5 days (p < 0.05). The cells cultured in PGPT medium had higher bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin relative mRNA expression compared to cells cultured in non-treated porcine grafts (p < 0.05). CAP treatment of porcine particles did not modify the biomaterial's surface and improved the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells.
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