In the present study, in vitro, in vivo, and in silico models were used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Pulmeria alba methanolic (PAm) extract, and we identified the major phytocompound, apigetrin. Our in vitro studies revealed dose-dependent increased glucose uptake and inhibition of α-amylase (50% inhibitory concentration (IC50)= 217.19 µg/mL), antioxidant (DPPH, ferric-reducing activity of plasma (FRAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) [IC50 = 103.23, 58.72, and 114.16 µg/mL respectively]), and anti-inflammatory potential (stabilizes human red blood cell (HRBC) membranes, and inhibits proteinase and protein denaturation [IC50 = 143.73, 131.63, and 198.57 µg/mL]) by the PAm extract. In an in vivo model, PAm treatment reversed hyperglycemia and attenuated insulin deficiency in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. A post-treatment tissue analysis revealed that PAm attenuated neuronal oxidative stress, neuronal inflammation, and neuro-cognitive deficiencies. This was evidenced by increased levels of antioxidants enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH)), and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), proinflammatory markers (cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), nuclear factor (NF)-κB and nitric oxide (NOx)), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in the brain of PAm-treated rats compared to the STZ-induced diabetic controls. However, no treatment-related changes were observed in levels of neurotransmitters, including serotonin and dopamine. Furthermore, STZ-induced dyslipidemia and alterations in serum biochemical markers of hepatorenal dysfunction were also reversed by PAm treatment. Extract characterization identified apigetrin (retention time: 21,227 s, 30.48%, m/z: 433.15) as the major bioactive compound in the PAm extract. Consequently, we provide in silico insights into the potential of apigetrin to target AChE/COX-2/NOX/NF-κB Altogether the present study provides preclinical evidence of the therapeutic potential of the apigetrin-enriched PAm extract for treating oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation associated with diabetes.