The study aimed to analyze the recovery period of the anodized 316L biomedical stainless steel (BSS) mini-implant through its implantation on femur of rabbit model. The 316L BSS miniimplant was modified by an electrochemical anodization approach with different voltages. The anodized samples were characterized via field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The biocompatibility was assessed by cell culture assay. The anodized mini-implant was implanted on rabbit’s femur then evaluated histologically after 4 and 8 weeks. Analytical results indicated that the topography of the anodized mini-implant at 5 V for 5 min consisted of a dual (micro/nano) porous structure. Oxide film of Cr2O3 was formed on the surface of anodized mini-implant after anodizing with 5 V for 5 min. In vitro cell culture assay revealed that fibroblast cells (NIH-3T3) on the anodized samples were more firmly attached as compared with the control sample. Moreover, histological analysis demonstrated that the anodized mini-implant improved bone recovering at 4 weeks after implantation. Thus, this study suggests that the anodized 316L BSS mini-implant could be a potential choice as anchorage device for effective and efficient orthodontic treatment.
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