Introduction: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a progressive condition, and sequential additions of therapy are usually required to maintain glycemic control. The options for glucose lowering therapies have increased considerably in recent years. Fixed-dose combinations such as alogliptin with pioglitazone provide a convenient choice which can improve medication adherence. Areas covered: The authors performed a literature search to identify publications describing the efficacy and safety of alogliptin and pioglitazone when used separately and in combinations. Expert opinion: Pioglitazone activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma which improves insulin sensitivity and helps to preserve β-cell function with a durable improvement in glycemic control. Pioglitazone can retard the progression of atherosclerosis and reduce cardiovascular events, but it is associated with adverse events including weight gain, fluid retention, and increased risk of fractures. Alogliptin improves glycemic control and appears neutral in terms of cardiovascular events. It does not appear to increase the adverse events associated with pioglitazone and use of the combination may permit the use of lower doses of pioglitazone with reduced adverse effects. There are no cardiovascular outcome studies with the combination but the cardiovascular benefits of pioglitazone and additional glucose lowering effects of alogliptin provide a useful combination with convenient once daily dosing.
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