Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction in industry should be a portfolio option; for example, the carbon capture and utilization by mineralization (CCUM) process is a feasible and proven technology where both CO2 capture and alkaline waste treatment occur simultaneously through an integrated approach. In this study, the challengeable barriers and significant breakthroughs of CCUM via ex-situ carbonation were reviewed from both theoretical and practical perspectives. Recent progress on the performance of various carbonation processes for different types of alkaline solid wastes was also evaluated based on CO2 capture capacity and carbonation efficiency. Moreover, several process intensification concepts such as reactor integration and co-utilization with wastewater or brine solution were reviewed and summarized. In addition, the utilization of carbonated products from CCUM as green materials including cement, aggregate and precipitate calcium carbonate were investigated. Furthermore, the current status of worldwide CCUM demonstration projects within the ironand steelmaking industries was illustrated. The energy consumption and cost analyses of CCUM were also evaluated.
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