Leukoencephalopathy, cerebral calcifications, and cysts (LCC) is an extremely rare neurological disease, also known as Labrune syndrome. The disease more commonly affects children and young adults and the characteristic triple imaging findings are leukoencephalopathy, calcifications and multiple cysts, presenting with a variety of supra- and infratentorial symptoms but lacking for extra-neurological manifestations. Coats plus syndrome and cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts (CRMCC) share similar neurological findings with LCC, but additionally involves other extra-neurological organs. Tumoral excision is usually required due to mass effect to the eloquent brain of multiple growing cysts or hemorrhages, but the outcome of surgery varies. Here we demonstrate an 8-year neuroimaging study of a rare adult-onset case of LCC with gradual headache, hemiparesis, hand tremors, unstable gait, and seizure attacks despite several times of tumoral excision. Neuroimaging revealed multiple microbleeds and microcalcification in the leukoencephalopathic areas, with increasing calcifications, recurrent previously excised cysts and new cyst formation in the longitudinal neuroimaging follow-ups within the eight years. We believe that LCC involves microangiopathy, which causes blood-brain barrier disruption, myelin serum collection and subsequent growing cysts and dystrophic calcification formation. We provide histopathological correlation in the illustration. Due to the underlying pathomechanism and long-term recurrence nature, patients with a combination of cysts and calcifications on CT scan should be follow up carefully and postoperative recurrence after years may occur.
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