Because the androgen and estrogen nuclear hormone receptors are subject to acetylation, we speculated that the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor-β1 (TRβ1), another superfamily member, was also subject to this posttranslational modification. Treatment of 293T cells that contain TRβ1wt with l-thyroxine (T4)(10-7 M, total concentration) resulted in the accumulation of acetylated TR in nuclear fractions at 30-45 min and a decrease in signal by 60 min. A similar time course characterized recruitment by TR of p300, a coactivator protein with intrinsic transacetylase activity. Recruitment by the receptor of SRC-1, a TR coactivator that also acetylates nucleoproteins, was also demonstrated. Inhibition of the MAPK (ERK1/2) signal transduction cascade by PD 98059 blocked the acetylation of TR caused by T4. Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) decreased T 4-induced acetylation of TR. At 10-7 M, 3,5,3′-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) was comparably effective to T4 in causing acetylation of TR. We studied acetylation in TR that contained mutations in the DNA-binding domain (DBD) (residues 128-142) that are known to be relevant to recruitment of coactivators and to include the MAPK docking site. In response to T4 treatment, the K128A TR mutant transfected into CV-1 cells recruited p300, but not SRC-1, and was subject to acetylation. R132A complexed with SRC-1, but not p300; it was acetylated equally well in both the absence and presence of T4. S142E was acetylated in the absence and presence of T4 and bound SRC-1 under both conditions; this mutant was also capable of binding p300 in the presence of T4. There was no serine phosphorylation of TR in any of these mutants. We conclude that (1) TRβ1, like AR and ER, is subject to acetylation; (2) the process of acetylation of TR requires thyroid hormone-directed MAPK activity, but not serine phosphorylation of TR by MAPK, suggesting that the contribution of MAPK is upstream in the activation of the acetylase; (3) the amino acid residue 128-142 region of the DBD of TR is important to thyroid hormone-associated recruitment of p300 and SRC-1; (4) acetylation of TR DBD mutants that is directed by T4 appears to be associated with recruitment of p300.
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