Burring surgery is mainly implemented for fine or critical structures and widely used in orthopedic, oral and maxillofacial, ENT and neurosurgery departments to delicately cut or polish bones, joints or other tissues. This paper describes a volume manipulation method that extends a voxel with multiple values to represent accurate burred changes on tissue surfaces. Tissue surface reconstruction is implemented for the local burred surface to provide a real-time visual response. A burring force vector for a haptic response is calculated by detecting which parts of a bur contact tissue and summated from tissue removal loads on the contacted parts. A spine surgery example showed that rough surface features by gross cutting or smooth features by fine cutting can be clearly demonstrated and high haptic reality can be achieved by our simulations. The burring surgery simulator with the accurate visual and haptic responses can be an effective rehearsing and training tool.
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