MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs known to negative regulate endogenous genes. Some microRNAs have high sequence conservation and localize as clusters in the genome. Their coor-dination is regulated by simple genetic and epigenetic events mechanism. In cells, single microRNAs can regulate multiple genes and microRNA clusters contain multiple microRNAs. MicroRNAs can be differentially expressed and act as oncogenic or tumor suppressor microRNAs, which are based on the roles of microRNA-regulated genes. It is vital to understand their effects, regulation, and various biological functions under both normal and disease conditions. Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas are some of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide and are regulated by many factors, including the dysregulation of microRNAs and their clusters. In disease stages, microRNA clusters can potentially control every field of oncogenic function, including growth, pro-liferation, apoptosis, migration, and intercellular commutation. Furthermore, microRNA clusters are regulated by genetic mutations or translocations, transcription factors, and epigenetic modifications. Additionally, microRNA clusters harbor the potential to act therapeutically against cancer in the future. Here, we review recent advances in microRNA cluster research, especially relative to head and neck cancers, and discuss their regulation and biological functions under pathological conditions as well as translational applications.
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