The surface characteristics, microstructures, and biocompatibility of the metal titanium oxide (TiO) film cross-linked with different self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of phosphonate were elucidated through scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, and in vitro cell culturing assay in the present study. It was found that a relatively uniform and flat SAM with a roughness of 3.09 ± 0.32 nm can be formed on the specimen surface after cross-linking with 11-phosphonoundecanoic acid solution (PUA-SAM/TiO). The microstructures of the investigated SAMs were composed of amorphous structure. Moreover, analytical results from the biocompatibility assay and cell adhesion response also demonstrated that the PUA-SAM/TiO specimen possesses better osteoblast-like MG-63 cell adhesion and proliferation ability at the early time point of culturing (24 h). Thus, these findings reveal that the formation of SAM of phosphonate as the targeted biomimetic surface could potentially promote early-stage osseointegration for biomedical Ti implants.
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