Aim: To revise items in the Cardiac Diet Self-Efficacy Scale, Chinese version (CDSE-C) using focus groups. Background: There is limited literature on using focus groups with older adults as well as nursing and nutrition professionals to revise a questionnaire. Methods: A qualitative research with multi-perspective focus-group approach was used from February through June 2009. Four serial focus groups were conducted including two focus groups of older adults from Taipei County (n= 6) and Yilan County (n= 6), one group of 5 nursing professionals, and one group of 4 nutritionists. Results: Serial focus group discussions added one category to the CDSE-C (reducing salt) and 3 items, resulting in an 18-item scale with six categories: healthy eating behaviors, reducing fat and cholesterol, resisting relapse, increasing fiber and vegetable, reducing sugar, and reducing salt. Conclusions: This revised measure can serve as a reliable tool for assessing older Chinese adults' healthy eating self-efficacy to evaluate and improve nutritional status in this population.
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