Phytochemicals that interrupt adipocyte lifecycle can provide anti-obesity effects. 1,2,3,4,6penta-O-galloyl-D-glucose (PGG) is a tannin with two isomers that occurs widely in plants and exhibits various pharmacological activities. The aim of the investigation is to comprehensively examine effects of PGG isomer(s) on adipocyte lifecycle and diet-induced obesity. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, and H4IIE hepatoma cells were used to determine the effects of PGG isomers on cell viability and adipogenesis. Mice with diet-induced obesity were generated from male C57/BL6 mice fed with a 45% high fat diet. Oral administration of β-PGG (0.1 and 5 mg/kg) lasted for 14 weeks. Viability was reduced by repeated PGG treatment in hMSC, preadipocytes, and cells under differentiation. PGG mainly induces apoptosis, and this effect is independent of its insulin mimetic action. In vivo, administration of β-PGG attenuated shortening of the colon, hyperlipidaemia, fat cells and islet hypertrophy in DIO mice. Hepatic steatosis and related gene expression were improved along with glucose intolerance. Increased serum adiponectin, leptin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels were also observed. In conclusion, repeated PGG treatment interrupts the adipocyte lifecycle. PGG administration reduces adiposity and fatty liver development in DIO mice, and therefore, PGG could aid in clinical management of obesity.
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