Over 2 million people suffer from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) each year. Predicting symptoms of mTBI and the characterization of those symptoms has been challenging. Biomarkers that correlate clinical symptoms to disease outcome are desired to improve understanding of the disease and optimize patient care. Bone marrow kinase on chromosome X (BMX), a member of the TEC family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, is up-regulated after traumatic neural injury in a rat model of mTBI. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether BMX serum concentrations can effectively be used to predict outcomes after mTBI in a clinical setting. A total of 63 patients with mTBI (Glasgow Coma Score [GCS] between 13 and 15) were included. Blood samples taken at the time of hospital admission were analyzed for BMX. Data collected included demographic and clinical variables. Outcomes were assessed using the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) questionnaire at baseline and 6 weeks postinjury. The participant was asssigned to the case group if the subject's complaints of dizziness became worse at the sixth week assessment; otherwise, the participant was assigned to the control group. A receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed to explore BMX level. Significant associations were found between serum levels of BMX and dizziness. Areas under the curve for prediction of change in DHI postinjury were 0.76 for total score, 0.69 for physical score, 0.65 for emotional score, and 0.66 for functional score. Specificities were between 0.69 and 0.77 for total score and emotional score, respectively. Therefore, BMX demonstrates potential as a candidate serum biomarker of exacerbating dizziness post-mTBI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1445-1449
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Neurotrauma
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - May 15 2021


  • biomarkers
  • BMX
  • dizziness
  • traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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