Previously, we successfully developed an extracorporeal endotoxin removal device (EERD) that is based on the novel next generation alternating microtube array membrane (MTAM-A) that was superior to the commercial equivalent. In this article, we demonstrated multiple different parameter modifications that led to multiple different types of novel new MTAM structures, which ultimately led to the formation of the MTAM-A. Contrary to the single layered MTAM, the MTAM-A series consisted of a superior packing density fiber connected in a double layered, alternating position which allowed for the greater fiber count to be packed per unit area. The respective MTAM variants were electrospun by utilizing our internally developed tri-axial electrospinning set up to produce the novel microstructures as seen in the respective MTAM variants. A key uniqueness of this study is the ability to produce self-arranged fibers into the respective MTAM variants by utilizing a single spinneret, which has not been demonstrated before. Of the MTAM variants, we observed a change in the microstructure from a single layered MTAM to the MTAM-A series when the ratio of surfactant to shell flow rate approaches 1:1.92. MTAM-A registered the greatest surface area of 2.2 times compared to the traditional single layered MTAM, with the greatest tensile strength at 1.02 ± 0.13 MPa and a maximum elongation of 57.70 ± 9.42%. The MTAM-A was selected for downstream immobilization of polymyxin B (PMB) and assembly into our own internally developed and fabricated dialyzer housing. Subsequently, the entire setup was tested with whole blood spiked with endotoxin; and benchmarked against commercial Toraymyxin fibers of the same size. The results demonstrated that the EERD based on the MTAM-A performed superior to that of the commercial equivalent, registering a rapid reduction of 73.18% of endotoxin (vs. Toraymyxin at 38.78%) at time point 15 min and a final total endotoxin removal of 89.43% (vs. Toraymyxin at 65.03%).

Original languageEnglish
Article number273
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • Microtube array membrane (MTAM)
  • Polymyxin B
  • Sepsis
  • Triaxial electrospinning
  • Ultra-high packing density

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Filtration and Separation


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