6 Citations (Scopus)


Kenya is among the leading nations in family planning in Africa, having the first official nationwide family planning program in sub-Saharan Africa. However, Kenya is still one of the most highly populated countries in Africa with a population of more than 52 million. The objective of this study was to assess the trends and contributing factors of contraceptive use. We conducted a multi-wave cross-sectional study using both the demographic health survey (DHS) and family planning effort index (FPE) datasets, analyzing five-year waves from 1989 to 2014. This study indicates that contraceptive use increased from 24.0% to 42.6%, with a change % of 77.5%. Despite changes in women’s characteristics, these characteristics posed little on the time trend of contraceptive use in Kenya. In addition, the policy component of FPE scores had a positive association with contraceptive use with negligible change after adjusting for social and demographic factors 1.055 (1.046–1.065). There was a fluctuating trend of the additional FPE components throughout the years. Women with lower education, those married to husbands with lower education, unmarried, and rural women remain behind in family planning service utilization. Targeted programs are still needed for these special groups. Policy adherence is vital for continued progress.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7065
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2020


  • Contraception behavior
  • Facilities and services utilization
  • Family planning services
  • Kenya
  • Social determinants of health
  • Trends

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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