Treatment results and prognostic factors for intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumors: single institute experience

I. Chun Lai, Tai Tong Wong, Cheng Ying Shiau, Yu Wen Hu, Donald Ming Tak Ho, Kai Ping Chang, Wan Yuo Guo, Feng Chi Chang, Muh Lii Liang, Yi Yen Lee, Hsin Hung Chen, Sang-Hue Yen, Yi Wei Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the treatment of intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCT) and to identify the prognostic factors for survival.Methods: Thirty-nine patients with nondisseminated NGGCTs, excluding those with pure mature teratomas, were treated between January 1985 and December 2010. Twenty-four patients received gross total or partial removal, 11 had excision biopsies, and 4 had no surgery. Radiotherapy was given postoperatively or definitively with a median tumor bed dose of 54 Gy (range 30–54) with or without craniospinal irradiation. All patients received ten cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, vinblastine, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin after radiotherapy, except for one with mixed anaplastic astrocytoma component who received oral temozolomide. Survival and prognostic factors were estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank tests, respectively.Results: After a median follow-up of 77.7 months (range 14–336), the 6-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 74.4 and 79.5 %, respectively. Inferior PFS was associated with lesions in the suprasellar region (p = 0.017), poor pathological features (p = 0.048), and with poor image (p < 0.0001) and tumor marker (TM) response (p = 0.003) to irradiation. Decreased OS was associated with lesions in the suprasellar region (p = 0.026) and with poor image (p < 0.0001) and TM response (p = 0.027) to irradiation. Neither the extent of surgery nor the radiation field was found to significantly influence survival.Conclusions: By our multimodality approach, patients achieved comparable outcomes. Other than poor pathological features, patients with poor responses to radiotherapy are prone to early recurrence and inferior survival. These patients should be focused for more intensive adjuvant treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)683-691
Number of pages9
JournalChild's Nervous System
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Chemotherapy
  • Nongerminomatous germ cell tumor
  • Prognosis
  • Radiotherapy
  • Response
  • Surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Clinical Neurology


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