TRANSFORM: A novel study design to evaluate the effect of everolimus on long-term outcomes after kidney transplantation

Julio Pascual, Titte R. Srinivas, Steven Chadban, Franco Citterio, Federico Oppenheimer, Helio Tedesco, Mitchell L. Henry, Christophe Legendre, Yoshihiko Watarai, Claudia Sommerer, Po Chang Lee, J. Mark Hexham, Gaohong Dong, Peter Bernhardt, Flavio Vincenti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Two well defined, modifiable risk factors for kidney allograft failure are acute rejection and poor graft function at one year post-transplant. Regulatory bodies and expert panels in the USA and Europe have recognized that both acute rejection and one-year graft function should be assessed when evaluating immunosuppressive regimens. TRANSFORM ( NCT01950819) is one of the first trials to adopt this approach and the first that applies a novel combined clinically meaningful endpoint to take the first step towards changing the paradigm for immunosuppression in kidney transplant patients. Everolimus with reduced-exposure calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy is a strategy designed to reduce the risk of chronic nephrotoxicity and other dose-dependent complications associated with CNI therapy. In TRANSFORM, de novo kidney transplant patients are randomized to everolimus with reduced-exposure CNI, or mycophenolic acid with standard-exposure CNI, both with induction therapy and maintenance steroids. The primary endpoint is a composite of treated biopsy-proven acute rejection or estimated glomerular filtration rate,50 mL/min/1.73 m2 at month 12 post-transplant, which is expected to be sensitive both to the effects of acute and chronic allograft rejection and nephrotoxic side effects of immunosuppressive therapies. The construct of this endpoint allows the integration of a continuous outcome (graft function) with a logistic outcome (rejection). The trial uses a randomized, multicenter, open-label, two-arm design. After completion of a 2-year core study, patients enter a further 3-year prospective observational study. By capturing follow-up to 5 years, TRANSFORM will provide substantial data on the incidence of graft loss, graft dysfunction, cancer, cardiovascular events, and other patient-relevant outcomes. TRANSFORM will determine whether de novo CNI reduction with an everolimus-based regimen achieves short-term outcomes compared with standard CNI. As the largest clinical trial undertaken to date in kidney transplantation, recruiting more than 2,000 patients, and with extended follow-up to 5 years, TRANSFORM will provide critical data required to help maximize long-term outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-53
Number of pages9
JournalOpen Access Journal of Clinical Trials
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Calcineurin inhibitor
  • mTOR inhibitor
  • Reduced exposure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics (miscellaneous)
  • Pharmacology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'TRANSFORM: A novel study design to evaluate the effect of everolimus on long-term outcomes after kidney transplantation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this