Nanotechnology is one of the scientific advances in technology. Nanoparticles (NPs) are small materials ranging from 1 to 100 nm. When the shape of the supplied nanoparticles changes, the physiological response of the cells can be very different. Several characteristics of NPs such as the composition, surface chemistry, surface charge, and shape are also important parameters affecting the toxicity of nanomaterials. This review covered specific topics that address the effects of NPs on nanomedicine. Furthermore, mechanisms of different types of nanomaterial-induced cytotoxicities were described. The distributions of different NPs in organs and their adverse effects were also emphasized. This review provides insight into the scientific community interested in nano(bio)technology, nanomedicine, and nanotoxicology. The content may also be of interest to a broad range of scientists.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7597
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - Jul 8 2022


  • cytotoxicity
  • ingestion
  • inhalation
  • medical applications
  • nanoparticles
  • nanotoxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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