Toxicity of terahertz-based functional mineral water (Plant-derived) to immature stages of mosquito vectors

Tai Chih Kuo, Chien Chung Lin, Ching Chu Tsai, Shiang Jiuun Chen, Tso Min Hung, Che Chu Hsieh, Ja Yu Lu, Rong Nan Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Functional mineral water and related products are popular in some Asian countries as health drinks and, recently, have been employed in agricultural crop production as well as pest control. This study aimed to investigate the survival of mosquito vectors exposed to plant-derived functional mineral water produced by terahertz technology. The terahertz-based functional mineral water used in the current study not only decreased the hatching of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larvae but also showed concentration-dependent toxicity to the 3rd instar larvae and pupae of the three mosquito species tested. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Cx. quinquefasciatus pupae were more susceptible to terahertz-based functional mineral water than the larval stage, as indicated by their lower LC50. Lower concentrations (<100 ppm) of terahertz-based functional mineral water were not lethal to the pupae; however, these low concentrations still resulted in a reduced adult emergence. Although terahertz-based functional mineral water did not significantly affect Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) hatching, it could potentially be used for vector control at the larvae and pupae stages. The larvicidal and pupicidal activity of diluted terahertz-based functional mineral water gradually diminished after 24 h, indicating that it is a biodegradable and eco-friendly bioinsecticide. However, as the terahertz-based functional mineral water is also toxic to larvivorous predatory-copepods, it should not be utilized in aquatic environments where predatory-based mosquito control programs are employed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number211
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • Aedes aegypti
  • Aedes albopictus
  • Bioinsecticide
  • Culex quinquefasciatus
  • Nonchemical pesticides
  • Terahertz radiation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science


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