Tissue microbiota in nasopharyngeal adenoid and its association with pneumococcal carriage

Chien Chia Huang, Tzu Hao Chang, Cheng Yang Lee, Pei Wen Wu, Chyi Liang Chen, Ta Jen Lee, Ming Li Liou, Cheng Hsun Chiu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The microbial colonization in the nasopharynx is a prerequisite for the onset of infectious diseases. For successful infection, pathogens should overcome host defenses as well as compete effectively with the resident microbiota. Hence, elucidating the richness and diversity of the microbiome at the site of pathogen colonization is pivotal. Here, we investigated the adenoidal tissue microbiota collected through adenoidectomy to evaluate the impact of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Prospectively, children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and otitis media with effusion (OME) were enrolled. During adenoidectomy, the nasopharyngeal swab and adenoid tissues were collected to determine the pneumococcal carriage and tissue microbiota, using multiplex PCR and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) pyrosequencing. A total of 66 pediatric patients comprising 38 children with SDB and 28 children with OME were enrolled. There was no difference between the bacterial cultures from the surface of the nasopharyngeal adenoid in the SDB and OME groups. Thirty-four samples (17 SDB and 17 OME) underwent 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and fulfilled the criteria for further analysis. The Shannon diversity index for the samples from the SDB patients was found to be higher than that observed for the samples from OME patients, although the difference was not significant (p = 0.095). The Shannon diversity index for the samples negative for the pneumococcal carriage was significantly higher than that for the samples positive for pneumococcal carriage (p = 0.038). Alloprevotella, Staphylococcus, Moraxella, and Neisseriaceae were significantly dominant in the samples positive for the pneumococcal carriage. Dialister was significantly less present in the adenoid tissue positive for the pneumococcal carriage. Streptococcus pneumoniae, one of the most common pathogens of the airway, significantly influences the composition and diversity of the microbiota in the nasopharyngeal adenoid. Thus, bacterial community analysis based on 16S rRNA pyrosequencing allows for better understanding of the relationship between the adenoidal microbial communities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104999
JournalMicrobial Pathogenesis
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021


  • Microbiota
  • Nasopharyngeal adenoid
  • Otitis media with effusion
  • Pneumococcal carriage
  • Sleep-disordered breathing
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Infectious Diseases


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