TIMECARD score: An easily operated prediction model of unfavorable neurological outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with targeted temperaturemanagement

Jr Jiun Lin, Chien Hua Huang, Yu San Chien, Chih Hsin Hsu, Wei Ting Chiu, Cheng Hsueh Wu, Chen Hsu Wang, Min Shan Tsai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Targeted temperature management (TTM) is recommended for comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors. Several prediction models have been proposed; however, most of these tools require data conversion and complex calculations. Early and easy predictive model of neurological prognosis in OHCA survivors with TTM warrant investigation. Materials and methods: This multicenter retrospective cohort study enrolled 408 non-traumatic adult OHCA survivors with TTM from the TaIwan network of targeted temperature ManagEment for CARDiac arrest (TIMECARD) registry during January 2014 to June 2019. The primary outcome was unfavorable neurological outcome at discharge. The clinical variables associated with unfavorable neurological outcomes were identified and a risk prediction score—TIMECARD score was developed. The model was validated with data from National Taiwan University Hospital. Results: There were 319 (78.2%) patients presented unfavorable neurological outcomes at hospital discharge. Eight independent variables, including malignancy, no bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), non-shockable rhythm, call-to-start CPR duration >5 min, CPR duration >20 min, sodium bicarbonate use during resuscitation, Glasgow Coma Scale motor score of 1 at return of spontaneous circulation, and no emergent coronary angiography, revealed a significant correlation with unfavorable neurological prognosis in TTM-treated OHCA survivors. The TIMECARD score was established and demonstrated good discriminatory performance in the development cohort (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.855) and validation cohorts (AUC = 0.918 and 0.877, respectively). Conclusion: In emergency settings, the TIMECARD score is a practical and simple-to-calculate tool for predicting neurological prognosis in OHCA survivors, and may help determine whether to initiate TTM in indicated patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)317-327
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the Formosan Medical Association
Issue number4
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Neurological outcome
  • Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
  • Prediction model
  • Targeted temperature management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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