Three-Dimensional Printing of a Hybrid Bioceramic and Biopolymer Porous Scaffold for Promoting Bone Regeneration Potential

Kuo Sheng Hung, May Show Chen, Wen Chien Lan, Yung Chieh Cho, Takashi Saito, Bai Hung Huang, Hsin Yu Tsai, Chia Chien Hsieh, Keng Liang Ou, Hung Yang Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, we proposed a three-dimensional (3D) printed porous (termed as 3DPP) scaffold composed of bioceramic (beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)) and thermoreversible biopolymer (pluronic F-127 (PF127)) that may provide bone tissue ingrowth and loading support for bone defect treatment. The investigated scaffolds were printed in three different ranges of pore sizes for comparison (3DPP-1: 150–200 µm, 3DPP-2: 250–300 µm, and 3DPP-3: 300–350 µm). The material properties and biocompatibility of the 3DPP scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, contact angle goniometry, compression testing, and cell viability assay. In addition, micro-computed tomography was applied to investigate bone regeneration behavior of the 3DPP scaffolds in the mini-pig model. Analytical results showed that the 3DPP scaffolds exhibited well-defined porosity, excellent microstructural interconnectivity, and acceptable wettability (θ < 90°). Among all groups, the 3DPP-1 possessed a significantly highest compressive force 273 ± 20.8 Kgf (* p < 0.05). In vitro experiment results also revealed good cell viability and cell attachment behavior in all 3DPP scaffolds. Furthermore, the 3DPP-3 scaffold showed a significantly higher percentage of bone formation volume than the 3DPP-1 scaffold at week 8 (* p < 0.05) and week 12 (* p < 0.05). Hence, the 3DPP scaffold composed of β-TCP and F-127 is a promising candidate to promote bone tissue ingrowth into the porous scaffold with decent biocompatibility. This scaffold particularly fabricated with a pore size of around 350 µm (i.e., 3DPP-3 scaffold) can provide proper loading support and promote bone regeneration in bone defects when applied in dental and orthopedic fields.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1971
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2022


  • 3D printing
  • Biocompatibility
  • Bone regeneration
  • Pluronic F127
  • Tricalcium phosphate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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