The Industrial Revolution brought new economics and new epidemic patterns to the people, which formed the healthcare 1.0 that focused on public health solutions. The emergence of large production concept and technology brought healthcare to 2.0. Bigger hospitals and better medical education were established, and doctors were trained for specialty for better treatment quality. The size of computer shrunk. This allowed fast development of computer-based devices and information technology, leading the healthcare to 3.0. The initiation of smart medicine nowadays announces the arrival of healthcare 4.0 with new brain and new hands. It is an era of big revision of previous technologies, one of which is artificial intelligence which will lead humans to a new world that emphasizes more on advanced and continuous learnings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number40
JournalJournal of Medical Systems
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Information Systems
  • Health Informatics
  • Health Information Management


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