The Refined Middle-Range Theory on Women’s Leadership in Asian Culture

Eun Ok Im, Hsiu Hung Wang, Hsiu Min Tsai, Reiko Sakashita, Eui Geum Oh, Chia Chin Lin, Wipada Kunaviktikul, Jillian Inouye, Lian Hua Huang, Marion E. Broome

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Because virtually no theories were available to explain unique characteristics of Asian women’s leadership in nursing, a middle-range theory on women’s leadership in Asian culture was previously published. To reflect recent political and social changes in different countries, there is a necessity to refine the theory. The purpose of this article is to present the refined middle-range theory on Asian women’s leadership in nursing. Methodology: Using an integrative approach, the theory was further developed based on two major sources: literature reviews and exemplars/cases from six different countries. Results: The Refined Middle-Range Theory on Women’s Leadership in Asian Culture has two main domains: (a) leadership frames and (b) leadership contexts. The domain of leadership contexts has been extended with two additional main concepts including demographic contexts and health workforce/system contexts. Discussion: The refined theory is expected to guide Asian women’s leadership in nursing across the globe.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)539-546
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Transcultural Nursing
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Asia
  • leadership
  • middle-range theory
  • nurse
  • women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'The Refined Middle-Range Theory on Women’s Leadership in Asian Culture'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this