The precancerous effect of emitted cooking oil fumes on precursor lesions of cervical cancer

Chien Hung Lee, Sheau Fang Yang, Chiung Yu Peng, Ruei Nian Li, Yu Chieh Chen, Te Fu Chan, Eing Mei Tsai, Fu Chen Kuo, Joh Jong Huang, Hsiu Ting Tsai, Yu Hsiu Hung, Hsiao Ling Huang, Sharon Tsai, Ming Tsang Wu

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45 Citations (Scopus)


Although cooking emission from high-temperature frying has been deemed a Group 2A carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, little is known about its impact on cervical tumorigenesis. To investigate the precancerous consequence of cooking oil fumes on cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN), a community-based case-control study, which takes all known risk factors into consideration, was conducted in Taiwan. From 2003 to 2008, in a Pap smear screening and biopsy examination network, 206 pathology-verified women with inflammations/atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or CIN grade-1 (CIN1) and 73 with CIN2-3 (defined as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSIL), respectively); and 1,200 area-and-age-matched controls with negative cytology were recruited. Multinomial logistic regression was applied in the multivariate analysis to determine the likelihood of contracting LGSIL or HGSIL. The risks of the two lesions increased with the increase of carcinogenic high-risk human papillomavirus DNA load, with a clear dose-response relationship. Chefs were observed to experience a 7.9-fold elevated HGSIL risk. Kitchens with poor fume ventilation during the main cooking life-stage correlated to a 3.7-fold risk of HGSIL, but not for LGSIL. More than 1 hr of daily cooking in kitchens with poor fume conditions appeared to confer an 8.4-fold HGSIL risk, with an 8.3-fold heterogeneously higher odds ratio than that (aOR = 1.0) for LGSIL. Similar risk pattern has been reproduced among never-smoking women. Our findings demonstrate the association between indoor exposure to cooking fumes from heated oil and the late development of cervical precancerous lesions. This final conclusion needs to be verified by future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)932-941
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 15 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Cervical cancer
  • Cervical intraepithelial neoplasm
  • Cooking oil fumes
  • High-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions
  • Human papillomavirus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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