The Effect of Long COVID-19 Infection and Vaccination on Male Fertility; A Narrative Review

Soheila Pourmasumi, Alireza Nazari, Zahra Ahmadi, Sophia N. Kouni, Cesare de Gregorio, Ioanna Koniari, Periklis Dousdampanis, Virginia Mplani, Panagiotis Plotas, Stelios Assimakopoulos, Christos Gogos, Georgios Aidonisdis, Pavlos Roditis, Nikos Matsas, Dimitrios Velissaris, Gianfranco Calogiuri, Ming Yow Hung, Servet Altay, Nicholas G. Kounis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Earlier research has suggested that the male reproductive system could be particularly vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection, and infections involving this novel disease not only pose serious health threats but could also cause male infertility. Data from multi-organ research during the recent outbreak indicate that male infertility might not be diagnosed as a possible consequence of COVID-19 infection. Several review papers have summarized the etiology factors on male fertility, but to date no review paper has been published defining the effect of COVID-19 infection on male fertility. Therefore, the aim of this study is to review the published scientific evidence regarding male fertility potential, the risk of infertility during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on the male reproductive system. The effects of COVID-19 infection and the subsequent vaccination on seminal fluid, sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm viability, testes and sex hormones are particularly reviewed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1982
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • COVID-19
  • infertility
  • SARS
  • sperm
  • vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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