The p16/Ki67 dual immunostaining was performed on anal cytology specimens; this is an anal cancer screening method. A literature search was performed in the BioMed Central, Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, and PubMed electronic databases for relevant articles. We included studies that discussed the efficacy of p16/Ki67 dual immunostaining for detecting anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Studies that calculated the diagnostic efficacy on a per-patient basis were included. We excluded review articles, case series, and studies that did not provide sufficient information. We extracted data on true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative from the included studies to generate pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). All analyses were performed with a random-effects model using MetaDiSc 1.4 and MetaDTA. The meta-analysis produced a pooled sensitivity of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.86) and specificity of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.81) for p16/Ki67 dual immunostaining in detecting AIN. The pooled DOR was 3.26 (95% CI: −0.29, 6.82). A subgroup analysis of HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) demonstrated a pooled sensitivity of 0.75 (95% CI: 0.28, 0.96). p16/Ki67 dual immunostaining might have a higher sensitivity for detecting AIN in HIV-infected MSM. p16/Ki67 dual immunostaining might be more sensitive in HIV-infected MSM and has higher specificity compared to human papillomavirus testing among this high-risk group. p16/Ki67 dual immunostaining might be an adjuvant and potential triage test for anal cytology in anal cancer screening.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Men's Health
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Anal cytology
  • anus neoplasms
  • early detection of cancer
  • p16/Ki67 dual immunostaining
  • predictive value of tests

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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