The Association of Bisphenol A and Parabens Exposure and Oxidative Stress in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

Boopathi Subramani, Chia Huang Chang, Ting Yu Fang, Ching Jung Yu, Jung Chieh Du, Hsien Chih Chiou, Jia Woei Hou, Winnie Yang, Hsin Chang Chen, Ying Sheue Chen, Betau Hwang, Mei Lien Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Bisphenol A (BPA) and personal care products containing parabens have been linked to disruption of endocrine function. General exposure to BPA and parabens comes from drinking water and food due to the overuse of plastic containers and personal care products. In this study, we sought to determine the relationship between exposure to BPA and parabens with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oxidative stress and the mediating role of oxidative stress in ADHD. This case–control study enrolled 92 children with ADHD and 137 control subjects. Urinary BPA and four paraben levels were measured in these children by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Oxidative stress biomarkers in urine were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray-ionization-mass spectrometry. The results showed that there were significantly higher concentrations of methyl paraben (MP) and ethyl paraben (EP) for ADHD children than in the control group (MP: 35.76 vs. 26.73 µg/g cre., p-value = 0.05; EP: 2.17 vs. 1.41 µg/g cre., p-value = 0.01). It was found that children with increased EP concentration have a higher risk of ADHD (odds ratio [OR]: 2.58, 95% CI 1.42–4.72), and the risk, in particular, increases in male children (OR: 2.83, 95% CI 1.37–5.84). No significant mediating effect of oxidative stress from BPA or parabens exposure on ADHD was found. The results suggest the role of parabens exposure in the onset of childhood ADHD, particularly the increased risk in male children.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)389-400
Number of pages12
JournalExposure and Health
Volume16
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023

Keywords

  • ADHD
  • Bisphenol A
  • Children
  • Oxidative stress
  • Parabens

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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