Ten-year experience of superior gluteal artery perforator flap for reconstruction of sacral defects in tri-service general hospital

Chin-Ta Lin, Niann-Tzyy Dai, Shun-Cheng Chang, Shyi-Gen Chen, Tim-Mo Chen, Hsian-Jenn Wang, Yuan-Sheng Tzeng

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Despite advances in reconstruction techniques, sacral sores continue to present a challenge to the plastic surgeon. The superior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP) flap is a reliable flap that preserves the entire contralateral side as a future donor site. On the ipsilateral side, the gluteal muscle itself is preserved and all flaps based on the inferior gluteal artery are still possible. However, the dissection of the perforator is tedious and carries a risk of compromising the perforator vessels. Patients and Methods: During the period between April 2003 and March 2013, 30 patients presented to our section with sacral wounds causing by pressure sores or infected pilonidal cysts. Of a total of 30 patients, 13 were female and 17 were male. Their ages ranged from 22 to 92 years old (mean 79.8 years old). Surgical intervention was performed electively with immediate or delayed reconstruction using a SGAP flap. The characteristics of patients' age, and sex, and cause of sacral defect, co-morbidities, wound culture, flap size, perforator number, hospital stay, and outcome were reviewed. Results: For all operations, the length of the pedicle dissection will not exceed 1 cm because of the vascular anatomy of the SGAP, which lies adjacent to the sacral region. Due to short pedicle dissection, all SGAP flap were elevated around an hour. All flaps survived except two, which had partial flap necrosis and were finally treated by contralateral V-Y advancement flaps coverage. The mean follow-up period was 14.8 months (range 3-24). No flap surgery-related mortality was found. Conclusion: Perforator-based flaps have become popular in modern reconstructive surgery because of low donor site morbidity and good preservation of muscle. Our study shows that deep pedicle dissection is unnecessary when the surgery involves an accurate indicating perforator, adequate flap size design, and correct selection of flap utilization between tunnel and rotation. The advantages of this modification include a faster operation, less bleeding, and less trauma of the pedicle, which make the SGAP flaps an alternative choice for sacral sores coverage. © 2014 JMS.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)66-71
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Medical Sciences (Taiwan)
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Reconstruction
  • Sacral sore
  • Superior gluteal artery perforator flap
  • Acinetobacter baumannii
  • adult
  • aged
  • article
  • Candida albicans
  • clinical article
  • debridement
  • decubitus
  • donor site
  • Doppler flowmetry
  • Entamoeba coli
  • Enterococcus faecalis
  • female
  • gluteus maximus muscle
  • graft necrosis
  • human
  • immobility
  • male
  • middle aged
  • pilonidal sinus
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • sacral defect
  • sacrum
  • skin injury
  • skin transplantation
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • superior gluteal artery perforator flap
  • very elderly
  • wound dehiscence
  • young adult


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