Background Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) prevalence is typically higher in juvenile patients than in adults. We aimed to evaluate the optimal treatment for primary spontaneous pneumothorax and its efficacy and safety in juveniles. Materials and methods We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases for eligible studies published from database inception to October 10, 2020, and conducted a systematic review and metaanalysis according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The primary and secondary outcomes were recurrence rate and hospital stay length, respectively. Odds ratios (OR) and mean differences were used for quantitatively analyzing binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. In total, nine retrospective studies with 1,452 juvenile patients (aged <21) were included for the quantitative analysis. The surgical approach led to a lower recurrence rate than did conservative approaches (OR: 1.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.15-3.32). Moreover, the recurrence rate was low in patients who underwent conservative treatment first and received surgery later. Conclusions Surgical approach for first-line management might have a greater effect on recurrence prevention than do conservative approaches. An upfront surgery might be an optimal choice for juvenile primary spontaneous pneumothorax.
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