Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable TPP/genipin co-crosslinked chitosan gel beads

Fwu Long Mi, Hsing Wen Sung, Shin Shing Shyu, Chia Ching Su, Chih Kang Peng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

242 Citations (Scopus)


Novel chitosan gel beads were synthesized by a coupled ionic and chemical co-crosslinking mechanism. Tripolyphosphate (TPP) and a naturally occurring crosslinking reagent, genipin, which has been used in herbal medicine, were employed, respectively, as an ionic and a chemical crosslinkers to prepare the chitosan-based networks of gel beads. The competitive crosslinking of chitosan with ionic crosslinker (TPP) and chemical crosslinker (genipin) was characterized by FTIR, UV and EDAX spectroscopy (X-ray energy dispersion) spectroscopy. The variation of characteristic peak of genipin observed from UV spectroscopy and the characteristic peak of tripolyphosphate in crosslinked chitosan-based networks observed from FTIR spectroscopy suggests that the co-crosslinking mechanism is dependent on the pH of TPP/genipin co-crosslinker. The energy profiles of carbon and phosphorus estimated from confirms that chemical crosslinking dominates the co-crosslinking reaction at higher pH condition (pH 7,0 and 9.0) and ionic crosslinking dominates the co-crosslinking reaction at lower pH condition (pH 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0). The pH-dependent ionic/chemical co-crosslinking mechanism shows an obvious effect on the swelling property and enzymatic degradation behavior of prepared chitosan networks. These results reveal that the ionic/chemical co-crosslinked chitosan networks may be suitable for biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6521-6530
Number of pages10
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - Sept 18 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Chitosan
  • Genipin
  • Tripolyphosphate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Organic Chemistry


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