Background: As a complex phenomenon, sleep quality is difficult to objectively define and measure, and multiple factors related to sleep quality, such as age, lifestyle, physical activity, and physical fitness, feature prominently in older adult populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate subjective sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and to associate sleep quality with health-related physical fitness factors, depressive symptoms, and the number of chronic diseases in the middle-aged and elderly. Methods: We enrolled a total of 283 middle-aged and elderly participants from a rehabilitation clinic or health examination department. The PSQI was used to evaluate sleep quality. The health-related fitness assessment included anthropometric and physical fitness parameters. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) short form. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18.0, and descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used for the analyses. Results: Overall, 27.9% of participants in this study demonstrated bad sleepers (with a PSQI score of > 5), 10.2% of study participants frequently used sleep medication to help them fall asleep, and 6.0% reported having significant depressive symptoms (with a CES-D score of ≥10). There are two major findings: (1) depression symptoms, the number of chronic diseases, self-rated health, and arthritis were significantly associated with a poor sleep quality, and (2) the 2-min step test was associated with longer sleep latency. These results confirmed that the 2-min step was associated with a longer sleep latency among the health-related physical fitness items. Conclusions: Our study found that depressive syndrome, chronic disease numbers, a poor self-rated health status, and arthritis were the main risk factors that influenced subjective sleep quality.

Original languageEnglish
Article number164
JournalBMC Public Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Arthritis
  • Depression symptoms
  • Health-related physical fitness
  • Pittsburgh sleep quality index
  • Subjective sleep quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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